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2019中考初三英语语法主谓一致知识点总结 新开私服传奇3发布网

初三英语语法主谓一致:

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓

一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

1. 语法一致的原则

(1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时,谓语用复数,例如:

He goes to school early every morning.

The children are playing outside.

To work hard is necessary for a student.

(2)由and或bothand连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Both he and I are right.

Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。例如:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

The poet and writer has come.

(3)由and连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由each, every修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

Each man and each woman is asked to help.

(4)主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语,谓语动词仍用单数。例如:

The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum.

Nobody but two boys was late for class.

Bread and butter is a daily food in the west.

(5) 一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。例如:

A lot of people are dancing outside.

The police are looking for lost boy.

(6)由each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。例如:

Is everybody ready?

Somebody is using the phone.

(7)有两部分构成的物体的名词,如glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Where are my shoes? I cant find them.

Your trousers are dirty. Youd better change them.

如果这类名词前用了a pair of等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复数形式往往取决于pair的单复数形式。例如:

Here are some new pairs of shoes.

My new pair of socks is on the bed.

2. 意义一致的原则

(1)表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:

Twenty years is not a long time.

Ten dollars is too dear.

(2)有些集合名词,如family, team等作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数;如指其中每个成员,则用复数。例如:

My family is big one.

My family are watching TV.

(3)不定代词由all, most, more, some, any, none作主语时,也要依这些代词表示的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。例如:

All of the work has been finished.

All of the people have gone.

(4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。例如:

Who is your brother?

Who are League members?

(5)分数或百分数+of+名词构成的词组作主语时,其谓语动词要以of后面的名词而定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:

It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women.

Three fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

(6)half, the rest等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,动词用复数;如果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如:

I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult.

Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick.

(7)由what 引导地主于从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

What she said is correct.

What she left me are a few old books.

(8)凡是以定冠词+形容词(或分词)作主语,往往根据意义一致的原则决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果这种主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数;如果指的是一个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

The sick have been cured and the lost have been found.

The dead is a famous person.

3. 邻近一致的原则

(1)由连词or, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致。例如:

Either you or I am right.

Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it.

(2)在There be 句型中,谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。

There are two apples and one egg in it.

(3)as well as 和名词连用时,谓语动词和第一个名词相一致。

He as well as I is responsible for it.

不但是我,他对这件事也有责任。

(4)以here开头的句子,其谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。

Here is a letter and some books for you.

【实例解析】

1. How time flies! Ten years ________ passed.

A. have B. has C. is D. are

答案:B。该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

2. Not only his parents but also his brother ________ to the Summer Palace. They havent been back.

A. have been B. have gone C. has been D. has gone

答案:D。该题考查的是主谓一致。如果由not onlybut also连接两个并列主语,其谓语动词同相邻的主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用has gone而不用has been。

3. Neither my father ________ going to see the patient.

A. nor I am B. nor I are

C. or me are D. or me is

答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。Neithernor是一组连词,可连接连个并列主语,其谓语动词应同靠近的主语I保持一致, 因此应选A。

4. Look! There _______ playing with the tourists on Yinhe Square.

A. are a number of deer B. are a number of deers

C. is a number of deer D. is a number of deers

答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。这个句子的主语是a number of deer, 是个复数概念,因此谓语动词应用复数形式。(deer单复数相同)