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2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  以下是小编整理的职称英语历年真题和解析,希望帮助到各位考生。

2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  2015年职称英语理工B真题及答案

  第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

  1.I will not tolerate that sort of behavior in my class.

  A.control B.accept C.observe D.regulate

  2.The law carries a penalty of up to three years in prison.

  A.message B.punishment C.guilty D.obligation

  3.These products are inferior to those we bought last year.

  A.poorer than B.narrower than C.larger than D.richer than

  4.The organization was bold enough to face the press.

  A.pleased B.brave C.powerful D.sensible

  5.The political situation in the region has deteriorated rapidly.

  A.improved B.changed C.worsened D.developed

  6.Most people find rejection hard to accept.

  A.refusal B.excuse C.client D.destiny

  7.They’re petitioning for better facilities for the disabled on public transport.

  A.planning B.preparing C.looking D.requesting

  8.He said some harsh words about his brother.

  A.proper B.normal C.unkind D.unclear

  9.I realized to my horror that I had forgotten the present.

  A.fear B.limit C.power D.fool

  10.There was a simultaneous trial taking place in the next building.

  A.fair B.full C.public D.coexisting

  11.He tried to assemble his thoughts.

  A.gather B.clear C.share D.spare

  12.The doctors did not reveal the truth to him.

  A.hide B.handle C.establish D.disclose

  13.Prisoners were kept in the most appalling conditions.

  A.flexible B.reasonable C.terrible D.serious

  14.We were attracted by the lure of quick money.

  A.amount B.tempt C.supply D.sum

  15.She’s extremely competent and industrious.

  A.hardworking B.honest C.objective D.independent

  第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的`内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  ADHD Linked to Air Pollutants

  Children have an increased risk of attention problems, seen as early as grade school, if their moms inhaled a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That’s the finding of a new study. Released when things don’t burned completely, this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. The biggest sources of these PAHs: the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.

  Frederica Perera works at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children’s health. In a new study, she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe other sources of PAHs, ones that would have been hard for an individual to avoid.

  The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy. The reason: Any PAHs in a woman’s blood would also be available to the baby in her womb. Nine years later, the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children, now age 9. They asked each child’s mother a series of questions. These included whether her child had problems doing things that needed sustained mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The scientists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent, careless mistakes. All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. About one in 10 U.S. children has ADHD.

  Among the women studied, traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure, Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood. Others had high levels. Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9. The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE.

  16.Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over America.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  17.The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in harming the subjects physical health.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  18.Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking on PAHs was unclear.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  19.The blood of each woman was tested once a month during pregnancy.

2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  20.Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  21.The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely to have kids with ADHD.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  22.Traffic and home heating were considered to be the biggest success of PAHs for the subjects in the research.

  A.Right B.Wrong C.Not mentioned

  第3部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23 ~ 26题要求从所给的6个选项中为指定段落每段选择1个小标题;(2)第27 ~ 30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。

  First Image-recognition Software

  1 Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.

  2 The new system, which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos, shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm (运算法则) for image recognition and retrieval is accurate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online. The system uses pixel (像素) data in images and potentially video — rather than just text — to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. The knowledge gleaned (收集) from those results can then be applied to other photos without tags or captions (图片说明), making for more accurate document search results.

  3 "Over the last 30 years," says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani, a co-author of the study, "the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern, massive, fast-growing multimedia data set, where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist (主旨) of it by looking at the pictures in it. Yet, surprisingly, all existing popular search engines, such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pixels to improve document search."

  4 The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system — a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed — that extracts semantic (语义的) information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval. The researchers tested their approach using more than 600 search queries (查询) on a database of 50 million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages. They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text.

  23. Paragraph 1 ________

  24. Paragraph 2 ________

  25. Paragraph 3 ________

  26. Paragraph 4 ________

  A.Popularity of the new system

  B.Publication of the new discovery

  C.Function of the new system

  D.Artificial intelligence software created

  E.Problems of the existing search engines

  F.Improvement in document retrieval

  27. The new system does document retrieval by ________

  28. The new system is expected to improve precision in ________

  29. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore ________

  30. The new system was found more effective in document search than the ________

  A.information in images

  B.current popular search engines

  C.using photos

  D.machine vision systems

  E.document search

  F.description of the HTML page

  第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

  第一篇 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?

  When people argue about whether coffee is good for health, they're usually thinking of health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help you concentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.

  Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy (树冠) of taller indigenous (土生土长的) trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffee. At first, this increases production because more coffee bushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production come increased profits.

2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  Unfortunately, deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators (捕食者) in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.

  Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides kill insects that eat the coffee plants, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink

  Fortunately, farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as “shade grown” and “bird friendly.” Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. But we’re paying for the health of the birds the land, ourselves, and the planet I think it's worth it.

  31.What is the main idea of this passage?

  A.Farmers are changing the way they grow coffee.

  B.Coffee is becoming more expensive to produce.

  C.People should buy shade-grown coffee.

  D.Shade –grown coffee is more expensive than sun-grown coffee.

  32.The function of the word “Traditionally” in Paragraph 2 is to show _______

  A.the positive effects of coffee.

  B.a change of coffee growth.

  C.how coffee production used to be.

  D.something that is the most important.

  33.What does increased production of full- sun coffee bring about?

  A.More insects.

  B.Better quality coffee.

  C.Larger farms.

  D.Higher profits.

  34.How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?

  A.They buy more land from other farmers.

  B.They move to another country.

  C.They cut down trees.

  D.They turn grassland into farmland.

  35.The full-sun method may affect this following EXCEPT _______

  A.insects.

  B.birds.

  C.humans.

  D.air.

  第二篇 More Rural Research Is Needed

  Agricultural research funding is vital if the world is to feed itself better than it does now. Dr. Tony Fischer, crop scientist, said demand was growing at 2.5% per year, but with modern technologies and the development of new ones, the world should be able to stay ahead.

  “The global decline in investment in international agricultural research must be reversed if significant progress is to be made towards reducing malnutrition and poverty,” he said.

  Research is needed to solve food production, land degradation and environmental problems. Secure local food supplies led to economic growth which, in turn, slowed population growth. Dr. Fischer painted a picture of the world’s ability to feed itself in the first 25 years, when the world’s population is expected to rise from 5.8 to 8 billion people. He said that things will probably hold or improve but there’ll still be a lot of hungry people. The biggest concentration of poor and hungry people would be in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia in 2020, similar to the current pattern. If there is any change, a slight improvement will be seen in southern Asia, but not in sub-Saharan Africa. The major improvement will be in East Asia, South America and South-East Asia.

  The developing world was investing about 0.5%, or $8 billion a year, of its agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) on5 research, and the developed world was spending 2.5% of its GDP. Dr. Fischer said more was needed from all countries.

  He said crop research could produce technologies that spread across many countries, such as wheat production research having spin-offs for Mexico, China or India.

  “Technologies still need to be refined for the local conditions but a lot of the strategic research can have global application, so that money can be used very efficiently,” Dr. Fischer said.

  Yields of rice, wheat and maize have grown impressively in the past 30 years, especially in developing countries. For example, maize production rose from 2-8 tones per hectare between 1950 and 1995. But technologies driving this growth, such as high-yield varieties, fertilizers, and irrigation, were becoming exhausted. “If you want to save the land for non-agricultural activities, for forests and wildlife, you’re going to have to increase yield,” Dr. Fischer said.

  36.What is the main idea mainly about?

  A.Shortage of food

  B.Development of agricultural technologies

  C.Importance of agricultural research

  D.Expectation of population growth

  37.Which of the following statements is true about the world’s agricultural research finding?

2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  A.it is increasing among developed countries.

  B.it is decreasing worldwide.

  C.Less is commanded from developing countries.

  D.Most of it is spent very efficiently.

  38.What is the picture of Asia’s food supplies in the first 25 years?

  A.Food shortage will not be a problem.

  B.There will be more hungry people in southern Asia.

  C.Population growth will result in more hungry people.

  D.There will be fewer hungry people in East Asia.

  39.What does Dr. Fischer say about technologies?

  A.They are costly.

  B.They have to be improved to meet local needs.

  C.Their application is limited.

  D.They have to be applied locally.

  40.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

  A.there is a demand for saving land for non-agricultural activities.

  B.crop production is growing faster in developing countries.

  C.maize production reached its peak in the 1990s.

  D.technologies improving maize production have been well developed.

  第三篇 Dangers Await Babies with Altitude

  Women who live in the world’s highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight babies, a new study suggests. These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.

  Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average. But it wasn’t clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished — many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.

  To find out more, Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998. The babies were bom in both rich and poor areas of two cities: La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world, at 3.65 kilometers above sea level, while Santa Cruz is much lower, at 0.44 kilometers.

  Sure enough, Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz. This was true in both high and low-income families. Even babies bom to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz. “We were very surprised by this result,” says Giussani.

  The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child.” says Giussani.

  His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.

  Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life. People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood, for example. Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life.

  41.What does the new study discover?

  A.Babies born to wealthy farmers are heavier.

  B.Newborns in cities are lighter than average.

  C.Low-attitude babies have a high risk of heart disease in their life.

  D.Women living at high altitudes tend to give birth to underweight babies.

  42.Giussani and his team are sure that

  A.people living in La Paz are power than those in Santa Cruz.

  B.the birthweight of babies born to wealthy families is above average.

  C.babies born in La Paz are on average lighter than in Santa Cruz.

  D.mother in La Paz are commonly under-nourished.

  43.It can be inferred from what Giussani say in Paragraph 4 that

  A.he was very tired.

  B.the finding was unexpected.

  C.the study took longer than expected.

  D.he was surprised to find low-income families in La Paz.

  44.The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth of underweight babies is

  A.reduction of oxygen levels

  B.lack of certain nutrition

  C.poverty of their mothers

  D.different family backgrounds

  45.It can be learnt from the last paragraph that

  A.underweight babies have a shorter life span.

  B.babies born to poor families lack certain hormones before birth.

  C.high-altitude babies tend to have high blood pressure in their later life.

  D.newborns in wealthy families have larger heads compared with their bodies.

  参考答案:

2016年职称英语考试备考真题

  1-5:1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 C

  6-10:6 A 7 D 8 C 9 A 10 D

  11-15:11 A 12 D 13 C 14 B 15 A

  16-20:16 B 17 B 18 B 19 C 20 C

  21-25:21 A 22 A 23 D 24 C 25 E

  26-30:26 F 27 C 28 E 29 A 30 B

  31-35:31 C 32 B 33 D 34 C 35 D

  36-40:36 C 37 B 38 D 39 B 40 A

  46-50:46 C 47 F 48 B 49 A 50 E

  51-55:51 B 52 A 53 D 54 D 55 D

  56-60:56 B 57 B 58 C 59 D 60 D

  61-65:61 B 62 A 63 C 64 B 65 A

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